This is the reputed birthplace of Krishna. A temple, built on the site of Krishna's supposed birthplace (an underground prison), was partially destroyed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who built a mosque in its place. Archaeological evidence seems to indicate that, by 100 BC, there was a group of Jainists living in Mathura. (Bowker)
Mathura is mentioned in the Sherlock Holmes story 'The Sign of Four.'