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Mathura is a city in India, located ~50km north of Agra; Mathura is to the south of Delhi. During the ancient period, this was an economic hub -- located at the junction of some relatively important caravan routes.

This is the reputed birthplace of Krishna. A temple, built on the site of Krishna's supposed birthplace (an underground prison), was partially destroyed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who built a mosque in its place. Archaeological evidence seems to indicate that, by 100 BC, there was a group of Jainists living in Mathura. (Bowker)

Mathura is mentioned in the Sherlock Holmes story 'The Sign of Four.'