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Madura is an Indonesian island off the eastern tip of Java, near the port of Surabaya. It has an area of approximately 4,250 sq. kilometers and a population of about 1.5 million, predominantly Muslim since the sixteenth century. It is administered as part of the East Java province. The main language of Madura is Madurese, which is also spoken on many of the 66 outlying islands. The main occupations are farming and fishing, and the island is considerably less developed than its larger neighbor, Java, to the west.