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Lunar mare

The Lunar maria (singular: mare) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient basaltic flood eruptions caused by extremely large meteoroid impacts. They were dubbed maria, Latin for "seas", by early astronomers who mistook them for actual seas.

Most of the volcanic eruptions that produced the maria occurred at many points along fissures around the edges of the impact basins. The basaltic lava usually flowed out in several distinct episodes over the course of many thousands of years.

The Lunar Maria
Latin Name English Name Lat Long Diameter
Mare Anguis Serpent Sea 22.6N 67.7E 150
Mare Australe Southern Sea 38.9S 93.0E 603
Mare Cognitum Sea that has become known 10.0S 23.1W 376
Mare Crisium Sea of Crises 17.0N 59.1E 418
Mare Fecunditatis Sea of Fecundity 7.8S 51.3E 909
Mare Frigoris Sea of Cold 56.0N 1.4E 1596
Mare Humboldtianum Sea of Alexander von Humboldt 56.8N 81.5E 273
Mare Humorum Sea of Moisture 24.4S 38.6W 389
Mare Imbrium Sea of Showers 32.8N 15.6W 1123
Mare Ingenii Sea of Cleverness 33.7S 163.5E 318
Mare Insularum Sea of Islands 7.5N 30.9W 513
Mare Marginis Sea of the Edge 13.3N 86.1E 420
Mare Moscoviense Sea of Muscovy 27.3N 147.9E 277
Mare Nectaris Sea of Nectar 15.2S 35.5E 333
Mare Nubium Sea of Clouds 21.3S 16.6W 715
Mare Orientale Eastern sea 19.4S 92.8W 327
Mare Serenitatis Sea of Serenity 28.0N 17.5E 707
Mare Smythii Sea of William Henry Smyth 1.3N 87.5E 373
Mare Spumans Foaming Sea 1.1N 65.1E 139
Mare Tranquillitatis Sea of Tranquility 8.5N 31.4E 873
Mare Undarum Sea of Waves 6.8N 68.4E 243
Mare Vaporum Sea of Vapors 13.3N 3.6E 245
Oceanus Procellarum Ocean of Storms 18.4N 57.4W 2568

A related set of features are the Lunar lacus (singular, lacus, Latin for "lake"), which are smaller basaltic plains of similar origin:

Lunar lacus
Latin Name English Name Lat Long Diameter
Lacus Aestatis Lake of Summer 15.0S 69.0W 90
Lacus Autumni Lake of Autumn 9.9S 83.9W 183
Lacus Bonitatis Lake of Goodness 23.2N 43.7E 92
Lacus Doloris Lake of Sorrow 17.1N 9.0E 110
Lacus Excellentiae Lake of Excellence 35.4S 44.0W 184
Lacus Felicitatis Lake of Happiness 19.0N 5.0E 90
Lacus Gaudii Lake of Joy 16.2N 12.6E 113
Lacus Hiemalis Wintry Lake 15.0N 14.0E 50
Lacus Lenitatis Lake of Softness 14.0N 12.0E 80
Lacus Luxuriae Lake of Luxury 19.0N 176.0E 50
Lacus Mortis Lake of Death 45.0N 27.2E 151
Lacus Oblivionis Lake of Forgetfulness 21.0S 168.0W 50
Lacus Odii Lake of Hatred 19.0N 7.0E 70
Lacus Perseverantiae Lake of Perseverance 8.0N 62.0E 70
Lacus Solitudinis Lake of Solitude 27.8S 104.3E 139
Lacus Somniorum Lake of Dreams 38.0N 29.2E 384
Lacus Spei Lake of Hope 43.0N 65.0E 80
Lacus Temporis Lake of Time 45.9N 58.4E 117
Lacus Timoris Lake of Fear 38.8S 27.3W 117
Lacus Veris Lake of Spring 16.5S 86.1W 396