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List of speculative or fringe theories

The neutrality of this article is disputed.

This is a list of speculative, fringe, or otherwise disregarded theories. This includes examples of fields of endeavor that many consider to varying extents to be pseudoscientific. Pseudoscientific practices are often quite popular, in part because they often work, possibly due to the placebo effect or observer bias. Many pseudosciences are associated with the New Age movement and there is a tendency to improperly associate all practices of the "New Age" with pseudoscience.

Inclusion in the list is possible because a theory is:

  1. Asserting claims without supporting experimental evidence;
  2. Asserting claims which contradict experimentally established results;
  3. Failing to provide an experimental possiblity of reproducible results; or
  4. Violating Occam's Razor (the principle of choosing the simplest explanation when multiple viable explanations are possible).
  5. Adhered to by a limited group.

Many of these theories are considered pathological science; this term refers to a psychological process in which believers in a theory, who may have originally conformed to the scientific method, unconsciously veer from that method, and begins a pathological process of wishful data interpretation. The article on pathological science provides more details on that subject. Historically, some current scientific conventions used today would appear on such a list (such as plate tectonics).

Note: Theories with an extremely small base of followers are not encyclopedic and should not be included.



See also