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Kashmiri literature

Kashmiri literature has a history of at least 2,500 years, going back to its glory days of Sanskrit. Early names include Patanjali, the author of the Mahabhashya commentary on Panini's grammar and the Yogasutra and Dridhbala who revised the Charaka Samhita of Ayurveda.

In medieval times the great philosophical school of Kashmir Shaivism arose. Its great masters include Vasugupta (c. 800), Utpala (c. 925), Abhinavagupta and Kshemaraja. In the theory of aesthetics one can list the Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta.

The use of the Kashmiri language began with the poet Lalleshvari (14th century),who wrote mystical verses. Later, came Habba Khatun (16th century) with her lol style. Other major names are Rupa Bhavani (1621-1721), Arnimal (d. 1800), Mahmud Gami (1765-1855), Rasul Mir (d. 1870), Paramananda (1791-1864), Ghulam Ahmad Mahjur (1885-1952), Abdul Ahad Azad (1903-1948), and Zinda Kaul (1884-1965).

In contemporary times, Hindi, Urdu, and English have become the languages of literary expression. Amongst these authors are Shaikh Abdullah and Ram Nath Kak who have written autobiography. Other authors of Kashmiri ancestry include Salman Rushdie and M.J. Akbar.