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Panini was an ancient Indian grammarian (approximately 5th century BC) who is most famous for formulating 4,000 rules of Sanskrit morphology.

Panini's grammar of Sanskrit is highly systematized and relies on patterns found in the language. Features of language are categorized according to their similarities, and then form the subject matter of the set of ordered morphological rules which constitute the bulk of the work. Inherent in the analytic approach employed by Panini are the concepts of the phoneme and the morpheme, only recognized by Western linguists millennia after he used them. The Paninian grammar is notably descriptive; it does not attempt to tell people how they should speak and write; Panini was only concerned with what people actually did say and write.

Panini's rules are said to be perfect - that is, they perfectly describe the Sanskrit morphology, and regarded as so clear that computer scientists have made use of them to teach computers to understand Sanskrit.

Panini uses metarules, transformations, and recursion in such sophistication that his grammar has the computing power equivalent to a Turing machine. In this sense Panini may be considered the father of computing machines. Paninian grammars have been devised for non-Sanskrit languages also. The Backus-Naur Form or BNF grammars used to describe modern programming languages have significant similarities with Panini's grammar rules.

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Panini is also a type of Italian sandwich bread baked in small loaves so that the entire loaf can be used for each sandwich.

In Italian language, panini is only the plural form of panino, a small bread often horizontally cut and filled with salame, ham, meat, or other food.

"Panini" is also a brand of grill made specifically for grilling these sandwiches.

Panini is the brand name of an Italian firm producing collectable stickers, based in Modena and named after the Panini brothers, who founded it in 1961.

It became famous in the 1960s for its football collections, which soon became object of a wide interest and are now considered as a juvenile cultural phenomenon of the following decades. Rare stickers (figurine) can reach very high prices on the collectors market. Some popular games were originated regarding stickers, somehow used as play cards.

Giuseppe Panini, the eldest brother and the inventor of this business, and a collectionist himself, financed the creation of the Raccolte Fotografiche Modenesi (Modena's photografic collections), a precious archive containg more than 300,000 photographs and a similar amount of post cards, describing the life of the town and the evolution of photographic art.