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2 The second independence war
3 The third independence war
The first independence war
The first independence war was declared by the Savoy's kingdom of Sardinia, in 1848, with the alliance of other Italian states. After an initial successful campaign, with the victories at Goito and Peschiera del Garda, the pope recalled back his troops, soon being followed by the other allies. The kingdom of the Two Sicilies too retired, but the general Guglielmo Pepe refused to go back to Naples and went to Venice to protect it.
After the annexion of Lombardy, the expansionist interests of Savoyards became quite evident, and - remained alone - Piedmont was defeated by Austrians at Custoza and forced to accept an armistice. In 1849, in Florence, the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, Leopold II, abandoned the town, which was ruled by a provisional government. In Rome, the Roman republic was declared (with Giuseppe Mazzini as one of the triumviri). Rome was attacked by French troops, but Giuseppe Garibaldi's forces prevailed; the republic would have however soon surrendered.
The second independence war
The second independence war was declared by the kingdom of Sardinia, in 1859, with the alliance of France.
The third independence war
The third independence war was declared by the kingdom of Italy (unified in 1860), in 1866, with the alliance of Prussia.