This article is part of theHistory of the English penny series.
|British penny (1901-1970)|
King George V (1910-1936) pennies were produced to the same standard until 1922, but after a three year gap in production the alloy composition was changed in 1925 to 95.5% copper, 3% tin, and 1.5% zinc, although the weight remained 9.4 grams and the diameter 31 millimetres. The inscription around the three variations of the left-facing king's head remained GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, while Britannia remained on the reverse, as before. In addition to the Royal Mint in the Tower of London, in 1912, 1918 and 1919 some coins were produced at the Heaton Mint in Birmingham, and are identified by a "H" to the left of the date, and in 1918 and 1919 some were also produced at the Kings Norton Metal Co. Ltd, also in Birmingham, and are identified by "KN" to the left of the date. Pennies were produced in 1911-1922 inclusive, and 1926-1936 inclusive bearing George V's effigy, however the 1933 penny is the great British numismatic rarity of the 20th century -- only seven coins were minted, specifically for the king to lay under the foundation stones of new buildings; one of the coins went missing when a church in Leeds was demolished in the 1960s, and its whereabouts are currently unknown.
A penny of King Edward VIII (1936) does exist, dated 1937, but technically it is a pattern coin i.e. one produced for official approval which it would probably have been due to receive about the time that the King abdicated. The obverse shows a left-facing portrait of the king (who considered this to be his best side, and consequently broke the tradition of alternating the direction in which the monarch faces on coins -- some viewed this as indicating bad luck for the reign); the inscription on the obverse is EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP.
King George VI's pennies (1937-1952) also have a left-facing bust of the king, with the inscription (to 1948) GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP, and (from 1949) GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX FIDEI DEF. Pennies were produced dated 1937-1940, and 1944-1952, although when necessary pennies were produced for the colonies in 1941-43 using the 1940 dies; the 1950 and 1951 circulation pennies were only produced for the colonies as none were needed in Britain -- when collecting pennies by year became fashionable in the early 1960s it was discovered that virtually the entire 1951 production of 120,000 coins had been sent to Bermuda and considerable effort was made to buy as many specimens as possible and many wild claims were made about their investment value (currently about £30 in uncirculated grade). The worldwide shortage of tin during the Second World War caused a change in the alloy in 1944-45 to 97% copper, 0.5% tin, 2.5% zinc, but this bronze tarnishes unattractively, and the original 95.5% Cu, 3% Sn, 1.5% Zn alloy was restored later in 1945.The series of pennies concludes with the pre-decimalisation issues for Queen Elizabeth II. Because of the large number of pennies in circulation there was no real reason to produce any more in the 1950s, however a large number of specimen sets were issued in 1953 for the Coronation, with the obverse inscribed ELIZABETH II DEI GRA BRITT OMN REGINA F D around the right-facing bust of the Queen by Mary Gillick. In all subsequent mintings of the penny the inscription was ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F D. At least one 1954 penny was struck, apparently for private internal purposes at the Royal Mint, but it was not until 1961 that there was a need for more pennies to be minted, and production continued each year until 1967. The 97% copper, 0.5% tin, 2.5% zinc alloy was used again for the 1960s pennies. Finally, there was an issue of proof quality coins produced in 1970, to bid farewell to a denomination which had served the country well for 1200 years. Thereafter, with decimalisation the new penny carried a value of 1/100 of a pound.
For other denominations, see British coinage.