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Hima means (is Arabic for) "inviolate zones" solely for the conservation of natural capital, typically fields, wildlife and forests (contrast haram to protect areas for more immediate human purposes). A Muslim has a specific obligation to practice khalifa ("stewardship") over nature, and each species of animals is said to be "its own nation". The selection of hima was thus a religious rather than community obligation, and was often undertaken by ulema. There were five types of hima reserves:

See also: haram, khalifa, conservation, wilderness reserve