Gyeongsang replaced the former Goryeo-era provinces of Yeongnam (modern-day North Gyeongsang) and Sannam and Yeongdong (modern-day South Gyeongsang). The province takes its name from the cities of Namgyeong (남경; 南京) (modern-day Gyeongju) and Sangju (상주; 尙州), both of which are located in North Gyeongsang. During the Joseon Dynasty, the provincial capital was located at Daegu, which is the capital of North Gyeongsang today. The Gyeongsang region as a whole is often referred to by the regional and former provincial name of "Yeongnam." (The term "Yeongdong" is applied today to Gangwon Province.)
Gyeongsang Province was situated on the southeast tip of the Korean Peninsula, and was bounded on the west by Jeolla and Chungcheong Provinces, on the north by Gangwon Province, on the south by Korea Strait, and on the east by the East Sea/Sea of Japan (see Notice on Talk page). The region is ringed by the Taebaek and Sobaek Mountains and is drained by the Nakdong River. The largest cities in the region are Busan, Daegu, and Ulsan. Other cities of note are Gyeongju (the former capital of Silla), Andong, Yeongju, Sangju, Gimcheon, Miryang, Gimhae, Changwon (the capital of South Gyeongsang), Masan, and Jinju.