The Geneva Conventions
consist of treaties
formulated in Geneva
that set the standards for international law
for humanitarian concerns. The conventions were the results of efforts by Henri Dunant
, who was motivated by the horrors of war he witnessed at the Battle of Solferino
Accusations of violation of the Geneva Conventions on the part of signatory nations are brought before the International Court of Justice at the Hague.
The conventions and their agreements are as follows:
This First Convention also mandated the foundation of the International Committee for the Red Cross
. The text is given in the Resolutions of the Geneva International Conference
The first three conventions were revised, a fourth was added, and the entire set was ratified in 1949; the whole is referred to as the "Geneva Conventions of 1949" or simply the "Geneva Conventions". Later conferences have added provisions prohibiting certain methods of warfare and addressing issues of civil wars. Nearly 200 countries are "signatory" nations, in that they have ratified these conventions.
Clara Barton was instrumental in campaigning for the ratification of the First Geneva Convention by the United States; the U.S. signed in 1882. By the Fourth Geneva Convention some 47 nations had ratified the agreements.
References and external links