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Gaullism is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. The main axis of de Gaulle's international policies was national independence, with, as some practical consequences, some reluctance with international organizations such as NATO or the European Economic Community. The basic tenants were that France should not have to rely on any foreign country for its survival (thus the creation of the French nuclear deterrent) and that France should refuse being subservient to any foreign power, be it the United States or the Soviet Union.

One may also cite social conservatism, and economic dirigism as parts of the Gaullist ideology, but these are not necessarily accepted by all those who called themselves Gaullists. Gaullism has sometimes been characterized as a form of populism, since de Gaulle relied a lot on his personal charisma.

In particular, it referred to the Union des Démocrates pour la République. Since de Gaulle's death, and the break-up of the UDR, the exact meaning of Gaullism is somewhat unclear. In general, "Gaullism" then refers to the Rassemblement pour la République (now integrated into the Union pour un Mouvement Populaire), Jacques Chirac's right-wing party. Chirac has, in the past, adopted both dirigist and laissez-faire approaches to economics; he has a pro-European Union stance.

There exist people on the Left that call themselves Gaullists. Even François Mitterrand, who denounced de Gaulle's way of ruling as a permanent coup d'état, was very intent on keeping the nuclear deterrent and asserting France's independence.

See also: Gaullist Party.