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French Sudan

French Sudan (Fr. Soudan) was a colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence, first from 1890 to 1899, then from 1920 to 1958, when the territory became the independent nation of Mali.

It was created as a French territory on September 9, 1880 as "Upper Senegal", and was renamed the "French Sudan Territory" on August 18, 1890, with its capital at Kayes. On October 10, 1899 French Sudan was broken up; 11 southern provinces went to French Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Dahomey, although two were returned in the following year.

In 1902 the parts of the colony not organized into military districts became Senegambia and Niger, then Upper Senegal and Niger in 1904, then the old name came back in a reorganization of 1920.

When Upper Volta was abolished in 1933, French Sudan picked up some of its provinces.

On November 25, 1958 French Sudan gained autonomy as a self-governing member of the French Community.

French Sudan was granted independence on September 22, 1960 as Mali.

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