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FDMA, or Frequency Division Multiple Access, is the oldest and most important of the three main ways for multiple radio transmitters to share the radio spectrum. The other two methods are Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

In FDMA, each transmitter is assigned a distinct frequency channel so that receivers can discriminate among them by tuning to the desired channel.

TDMA and CDMA are always used in combination with FDMA, i.e., a given frequency channel may be used for either TDMA or CDMA independently of signals on other frequency channels. (Ultra-wideband is arguably an exception, as it uses essentially all of the usable radio spectrum in one location.)