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Empire of Brazil

 This article is part of the
History of Brazil Series.
 Colonial Brazil
 Empire of Brazil
 History of Brazil (1889-1930)
 History of Brazil (1930-1964)
 History of Brazil (1964-present)

Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil was an independent monarchy from 1822 to 1889 known as the Brazilian Empire.

Table of contents
1 United Reign Period
2 The Empire of Brazil
3 Related Topics

United Reign Period

In 1808, French troops from Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portugal, and Dom Joao, governor in place of his mother, Dona Maria I, ordered the transfer of the royal court to Brazil. Brazil was elevated to the condition of a Reino Unido de Portugal e Algarve (1815). There was also the election of Brazilian representants to the Cortes Constitucionais Portuguesas (Portuguese Constitutional Courts).

The Empire of Brazil

Flag of the Empire of Brazil

Dom Pedro, son of king Dom Joao VI, and heir-apparent, was left in Brazil in the position of regent. On September 7 of 1822, he declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal, and became the first emperor, Dom Pedro I, in October 12, 1822.

From 1822 to the Declaration of the Republic in 1889, Brazil was an empire. There were three periods: the first was when Dom Pedro I ruled, and lasted until he abdicated in favor of his 5-year old son, and went to Portugal to become king of Portugal, in the year 1831.

In the second period, known as the regency, Brazil was ruled by several regents, because the heir of the throne was a child. In 1840 Dom Pedro II assumed the throne of his father, becoming the second and last emperor of the Brazil.

On September 28 1871, the Brazilian parliament approved and Princess Isabel, regent of Brazil in the emperor's absence, signed the Lei do Ventre Livre (Law of the Free Womb), declaring that all children of slaves would be free from that date. On May 13 1888, Princess Isabel signed the Lei Aurea (Golden Law), that was previously approved by the parliament, abolishing slavery in Brazil.

The Constitutionalist Revolution

On November 15 1889, Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca declared a provisional Republic, and deposed emperor Dom Pedro II, temporarily assuming the government of the country.

Article preceded by:
Colonial Brazil
Empire of Brazil Article followed by:
History of Brazil (1889-1930)

Related Topics