The first Cumann na nGaedhael was founded by Arthur Griffith in 1904 to campaign against a visit by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra to Ireland. In 1905 it merged with a number of other parties to form Sinn Féin.
The second Cumann na nGaedhael was formed by pro-treaty TDss in Dáil Éireann in Dublin in 1923. Its leader was W.T. Cosgrave. In 1933, it merged with a number of political parties and organisations to form Fine Gael.