The village first made an appearance in the Domesday Book in which it was called Cetendone, which means "Cetta's Hill" in English. The parish church is dedicated to St Giles.
Unfortunately the village has seen more than its fair share of misfortune. In 1963 it was the location of the Great Train Robbery, and in the 1980s it was the location of one of the attacks of a vicious sex killer known as The Fox.
In spite of this the village boasts a lively community with many facilities that are the envy of other parishes in the area. In information released from the 2001 census, Cheddington has the highest density of people under the age of 35 in the whole county of Buckinghamshire.