Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index


The Kingdom of Bhutan is a small, mountainous nation of south Asia, located in the Himalaya Mountains between India and China. The local name for the country, Druk Yul, means "land of the thunder dragon", as the thunder there is said to be the sound of roaring dragonss.

Druk Yul
(In Detail)
National motto: None
Official language Dzongkha
Capital Thimphu
King Jigme Singye Wangchuck
Prime minister Lyonpo Jigme Thinley
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 128th
47,000 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 139th
 - Date
From India
August 8, 1949
Currency Ngultrum
Time zone UTC +6
National anthem Druk tsendhen
Internet TLD.BT
Calling Code975

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Districts
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External Links


Main article: History of Bhutan

A Buddhist theocracy was established in Bhutan in the early 17th century. The area, historically close to Tibet to the north, came under the influence of the British in India during the 19th century and a protectorate was established in 1910, with Britain assuming control of foreign affairs, but refraining from interference in internal affairs.

After India itself became independent in 1947 it in turn assumed this role and granted independence to Bhutan in 1949, though it retains a protective role. The current monarchy, originally established in 1907 adopted a policy of driving out non-native Bhutanese, which has caused approximately 100,000 Nepalese and Indians to flee to neighbouring countries.


Main article: Politics of Bhutan

Head of state is the King or Druk Gyalpo, presently Jigme Singye Wangchuck. Although his title is hereditary, he can be removed by a two-thirds majority vote from the parliament, the unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu. This body has 154 seats, and is composed of locally elected town representatives (105), religious representatives (12) and members nominated by the king (37), all of whom serve a three-year term.

In his executive work, the monarch is aided by a council of ministers or cabinet (Lhengye Shungtsog), with members appointed by the king, approved by the National Assembly, and serving fixed, five-year terms.


Bhutan is divided into 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural):


Main article:
Geography of Bhutan

Bhutan is a very mountainous and landlocked nation, situated within the eastern Himalayas. Mountain peaks in the north reach up to over 7,000 m, the highest point being the Kula Kangri at 7,553 m. The southern part of the country has a lower altitude, and contains several fertile and densely forested valleys that flow down into the Brahmaputra river in India.

The majority of the population lives in the central highlands. The country's largest city, the capital Thimphu (population 50,000[1]), is located in the western part of these highlands. The local climate varies from tropical in the south to cool winters and hot summers in the central valleys, with severe winters and cool summers occurring in the Himalayas.


Main article: Economy of Bhutan

The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, providing the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive.

Bhutan's main economic partner is India as its border with Tibet is closed. Bhutan's currency, the ngultrum, is interchangable with the Indian rupee. The industrial sector is essentially non-existent, with any production being of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian contract labour. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources.

Model education, social, and environment programmes in Bhutan are underway with support from multilateral development organisations, always taking Bhutan's wish for preservation of its traditions into account. The government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare, though detailed controls and uncertain policies in many areas continue to hamper foreign investment. Major hydroelectric projects will lead expansion of GDP in 2002 by an estimated 6%.


Main article: Demographics of Bhutan

About half of the population are indigenous Bhutanese, known as the Ngalop or Bothe, who are closely related to Tibetan tribes. Major ethnic groups are the Lhotshampa, who originate from Nepal, and the Sharchop (from Assam). While Dzongkha is the official language, many local dialects are spoken in remote mountain villages, some with only a few speakers.

The official religion of Bhutan is the Mahayana tradition of Buddhism, which is adhered to by about three quarters of the population. A quarter of the Bhutanese are Hindus.


Main article: Culture of Bhutan

Bhutan is one of the most secluded nations in the world, and access for foreigners is restricted to certain areas, although these are expanding. Most of the population lives in small rural villages, and supports itself through agriculture, growing crops or breeding yaks. Buddhist religion forms an important part of life.

Archery is Bhutan's national sport, with traditional competitions being held regularly in most villages. Characteristic for the region is a type of fortress known as Dzong architecture.

Miscellaneous topics

External Links

Countries of the world  |  Asia