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Ammonium Chloride



Name Ammonium Chloride
Chemical formula NH4Cl
Appearance white crystalline powder


Formula weight 53.4913
Melting point 338C (640F) sublimes
Boiling point 520C (968F)
Density 1.527
Crystal structure Isometric
Solubility 29.7g/100g water @ 0C


ΔfH0gas   kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid   kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid -314.55 kJ/mol
S0gas, 1 bar   J/mol·K
S0liquid, 1 bar   J/mol·K
S0solid 94.85 J/mol·K


More info [  Hazardous Chemical Database]
SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.

Disclaimer and references

Ammonium Chloride or Sal Ammoniac (chemically ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); also \zalmiak, sal armagnac) is, in its pure form, a clear white crystalline salt. Historically it was considered one of the four alchemical "spirits". In modern times it found use as an electrolyte for batteries, as cough medicine flavoring to hide the taste of some medicines, and as a fluid retentative agent.

Sal Ammoniac was named after it was observed in the Temple of Zeus-Ammon in Egypt; its name means "salt of Ammon". It was the white crystaline substance that remained on the ceiling and walls after camel dung was burned. The modern name "ammonium" comes from Sal Ammoniac.

An industrial byproduct, in several countries sal ammoniac is used to spice up liquorice-type dark candies, and as a flavoring for vodkas. It is sold in blocks at hardware stores for use in cleaning the tip of a soldering iron.