10BASE-T uses the second and third pairs (orange and green) of the TIA-568B wiring standard.
10BASE-T was the first vendor-independent standard implementation of Ethernet on twisted pair wiring. However, it was in fact an evolutionary development from AT&T StarLAN which had both 1 Mbit/s and 10 Mbit/s versions. 10BASE-T is essentially StarLAN-10 with the addition of the link-beat.
In the OSI model, 10BASE-T is at the physical layer. Ethernet encompasses both addressing at the data link layer and a number of physical-layer implementations. In this model, 10BASE-T is one of the possible physical layer standards for ethernet-- some others include 10BASE2, 10BASE5, and 100BASE-TX. Network layer protocols, such as IP, do not generally need to know whether they are being hosted on 10BASE-T or not, provided they know that they are being hosted on Ethernet.