Wi-Fi Protected Access is part of the IEEE 802.11i standard.
It is a system to secure WiFi networks, intended to replace the current, insecure WEP (Wired Equivelent Privacy) system.
WPA can be configured to work with an 802.1X system using an authentication server or through a pre-shared key. Data is encrypted using TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption, which dynamically changes as the system is used.
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