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A V10 is an engine in V configuration, having 10 cylinders.

The V10 configuration is inherently imbalanced in the vertical plane and generates a rocking couple causing vibration from end to end of the engine. To contain this issue a balance shaft is required. This makes the V10 difficult to engineer without CAD. Thus the V10 was never used before the 1980s.

V10s have rarely been a popular configuration for road cars: a V12 is almost as cheap to build and runs more smoothly. However, recent years have seen increasing use of the configuration in the United States. The Dodge Viper uses a V10 engine, and one is available on Ford F-250 and Ford F-350 trucks and the Ford Excursion large SUV.

The only other use of the V10 has been in Formula 1 racing, after the introduction of the 3.5 litre rule made the V10 seem the best compromise between the V8 and the V12.