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The Upanishads ("Sittings Near [a Teacher]") is part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures primarily discuss philosophy and "cosmic reality"; they also contain transcripts of various debates. There are 123 books argued to be part of the Upanishads; however, only 13 are accepted by all Hindus. Prominent topics, which are discussed within these texts, are those regarding Atman and Brahman.

The term, Upanishad, is derived from the Sanskrit words upa (near), ni (down) and s(h)ad (to sit), i.e., sitting down near; implying the act of listening to a spiritual teacher. The Upanishads are sometimes argued to be a part of the Vedas; and are thus known as Vedanta ("End of the Veda").

The oldest and longest of the Upanishads are the Brihad-Aranyaka and the Chandogya from about the 7th century B.C. Initially there were over two hundred Upanishads but only fifteen were considered important by the philosopher Shankara. The Upanishads were not fully recorded until 1656, at the order of Dara Shakoh.

List of Upanishads

iisha = shukla yajurveda, mukhya upanishhad
kena =  saama veda, mukhya upanishhad
kaTha = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, mukhya upanishhad
prashna = atharva veda, mukhya upanishhad
muNDaka = atharva veda, mukhya upanishhad
maaNDukya = atharva veda, mukhya upanishhad
taittiriiya = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, mukhya upanishhad
aitareya = R^ig veda, mukhya upanishhad
chhaandogya =  saama veda, mukhya upanishhad
bR^ihadaaraNyaka (10) = shukla yajurveda, mukhya upanishhad
brahma = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
kaivalya = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, shaiva upanishhad
jaabaala(yajurveda) = shukla yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
shvetaashvatara = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
ha.nsa = shukla yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
aaruNeya = saama veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
garbha = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
naaraayaNa = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, vaishhNava upanishhad
paramahaMsa = shukla yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
amR^ita-bindu (20) = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
amR^ita-naada = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
atharva-shira = atharva veda, shaiva upanishhad
atharva-shikha = atharva veda, shaiva upanishhad 
maitraayaNi = saama veda, saamaanya upanishhad
kaushhiitaaki = R^ig veda, saamaanya upanishhad
bR^ihajjaabaala = atharva veda, shaiva upanishhad 
nR^isiMhataapanii =  atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
kaalaagnirudra = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, shaiva upanishhad
maitreyi = saama veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
subaala (30) = shukla yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
kshurika = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
maantrika = shukla yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
sarva-saara = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
niraalamba = shukla yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
shuka-rahasya = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
vajra-suuchi = saama veda, saamaanya upanishhad
tejo-bindu = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
naada-bindu = R^ig veda, yoga upanishhad
dhyaanabindu = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
brahmavidyaa (40) = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
yogatattva = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
aatmabodha = R^ig veda, saamaanya upanishhad
parivraat (naaradaparivraajaka) = atharva veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
tri-shhikhi = shukla yajurveda, yoga upanishhad 
siitaa = atharva veda, shaakta upanishhad
yogachuuDaamaNi = saama veda, yoga upanishhad
nirvaaNa = R^ig veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
maNDalabraahmaNa = shukla yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
dakshiNaamuurti = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, shaiva upanishhad
sharabha (50) = atharva veda, shaiva upanishhad 
skanda (tripaaDvibhuuTi) = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad 
mahaanaaraayaNa = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
advayataaraka = shukla yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
raamarahasya = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
raamataapaNi = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
vaasudeva = saama veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
mudgala = R^ig veda, saamaanya upanishhad
shaaNDilya = atharva veda, yoga upanishhad
pai.ngala = shukla yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
bhikshuka (60) = shukla yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
mahat = saama veda, saamaanya upanishhad
shaariiraka = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
yogashikhaa = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
turiiyaatiita = shukla yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
sa.nnyaasa = saama veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
paramahaMsa-parivraajaka = atharva veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
akshamaalika = R^ig veda, shaiva upanishhad
avyakta = saama veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
ekaakshara = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
annapuurNa (70) = atharva veda, shaakta upanishhad
suurya = atharva veda, saamaanya upanishhad
akshi = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
adhyaatmaa = shukla yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad 
kuNDika = saama veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
saavitri = saama veda, saamaanya upanishhad
aatmaa = atharva veda, saamaanya upanishhad
paashupata = atharva veda, yoga upanishhad
parabrahma = atharva veda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
avadhuuta = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
tripuraatapani (80) =  atharva veda, shaakta upanishhad
devi = atharva veda, shaakta upanishhad
tripura =  R^ig veda, shaakta upanishhad
kaTharudra = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
bhaavana =  atharva veda, shaakta upanishhad
rudra-hR^idaya = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, shaiva upanishhad
yoga-kuNDalini = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, yoga upanishhad
bhasma =  atharva veda, shaiva upanishhad
rudraaksha = saama veda, shaiva upanishhad
gaNapati =  atharva veda, shaiva upanishhad
darshana (90) = saama veda, yoga upanishhad
taarasaara = shukla yajurveda, vaishhNava upanishhad
mahaavaakya = atharva veda, yoga upanishhad
paJNcha-brahma = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, shaiva upanishhad
praaNaagni-hotra = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad
gopaala-tapaNi = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
kR^ishhNa = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
yaaGYavalkya = shukla yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
varaaha = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
shaatyaayani = shukla yajurveda, sa.nnyaasa upanishhad
hayagriiva (100) = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
dattaatreya = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
gaaruDa = atharva veda, vaishhNava upanishhad
kali-saNTaaraNa = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, vaishhNava upanishhad
jaabaala(saamaveda) = saama veda, shaiva upanishhad
saubhaagya = R^ig veda, shaakta upanishhad
sarasvatii-rahasya = kR^ishhNa yajurveda, shaakta upanishhad
bahvR^icha = R^ig veda, shaakta upanishhad
muktika (108) = shukla yajurveda, saamaanya upanishhad 

19 upanishhads are from Shukla Yajur veda and have the Shaanti beginning 'puurNamada.'

32 upanishhads are from krishna yajurveda and have the Shaanti beginning 'sahanaavavatu.'

16 upanishhads are from Saama veda and have the Shaanti beginning 'aapyaayantu.'

31 upanishhads are from Atharva veda and have the Shaanti beginning bhadram-karNebhiH.

10 upanishhads are from Rig veda and have the Shaanti beginning vaNme-manasi.

The list of the 108 upanishhads can be found in Muktika 1: 30-39. Please note that the classification of each upanishhad is not give in the muktika.

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