Mathematicians handle uncertainty using probability theory, Dempster-Shafer theory, fuzzy logic. See also probability.

Examples where uncertainty is important:

- Uncertainty is designed into games, most notably in gambling, where chance is central to play.
- In physics in certain situations, uncertainty has been elevated into a principle, the uncertainty principle.
- In weather forcasting it is now commonplace to include data on the degree of uncertainty in a weather forecast.
- Uncertainty is often an important factor in economics.

- New York Times article, "Studies Suggest Unknown Form of Matter Exists" by Ames Glanz, July 31, 2002