The Unangan, known by outsiders since the Russian era as "Aleuts", have lived here for thousands of years.
The Russian fur trade reached here when Stepan Glotov and his crew arrived on August 1, 1759.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 549.9 km² (212.3 mi²). 287.5 km² (111.0 mi²) of it is land and 262.4 km² (101.3 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 47.71% water.
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 4,283 people, 834 households, and 476 families residing in the city. The population density is 14.9/km² (38.6/mi²). There are 988 housing units at an average density of 3.4/km² (8.9/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 44.20% White, 3.67% Black or African American, 7.70% Native American, 30.63% Asian, 0.56% Pacific Islander, 9.32% from other races, and 3.92% from two or more races. 12.86% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 834 households out of which 36.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% are married couples living together, 4.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 42.9% are non-families. 32.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 1.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.51 and the average family size is 3.27.
In the city the population is spread out with 14.6% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 50.9% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, and 1.6% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 36 years. For every 100 females there are 194.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 218.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $69,539, and the median income for a family is $80,829. Males have a median income of $41,352 versus $29,766 for females. The per capita income for the city is $24,676. 12.5% of the population and 2.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 2.8% are under the age of 18 and 15.8% are 65 or older.