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5 Cities and towns
Economy\nThe gold rush of 1862 brought miners and stock raisers to the mountains and grasslands of Umatilla County. Another stimulus was the arrival of the railroad in 1881, opening the region to the development of dry land wheat farming. Water in the form of irrigation has been key to economic diversification and growth, most recently in the Hermiston area, where lush watermelons and other products are grown. The Pendleton Round-Up rodeo held yearly in Pendleton is an important tourist attraction.
Geography\nAccording to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 8,369 km² (3,231 mi²). 8,327 km² (3,215 mi²) of it is land and 41 km² (16 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 0.49% water.
Demographics\nAs of the census2 of 2000, there are 70,548 people, 25,195 households, and 17,838 families residing in the county. The population density is 8/km² (22/mi²). There are 27,676 housing units at an average density of 3/km² (9/mi²). The racial makeup of the county is 82.00% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 3.37% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 10.67% from other races, and 2.21% from two or more races. 16.11% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 25,195 households out of which 35.00% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% are married couples living together, 10.60% have a female householder with no husband present, and 29.20% are non-families. 23.70% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.70% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.67 and the average family size is 3.14.
In the county, the population is spread out with 27.80% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, and 12.30% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there are 104.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 104.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county is $36,249, and the median income for a family is $41,850. Males have a median income of $31,479 versus $22,325 for females. The per capita income for the county is $16,410. 12.70% of the population and 9.80% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 16.20% are under the age of 18 and 8.70% are 65 or older.
\nUmatilla County was created on September 27, 1862, out of a portion of Wasco County. Adjustments were made to the county's boundaries following the creation of Grant, Morrow, Union, and Wallowa Counties. This legislative act also designated Marshall Station as the temporary county seat. An 1865 election selected Umatilla City, now known as Umatilla, as the county seat. With the development of wheat farming, population shifted to the north and east parts of the county, and a subsequent election in 1868 moved the county seat again to Pendleton.
The Umatilla Indian Reservation was established by the Treaty of Walla Walla in 1855. The Umatillas, Walla Wallas, and Cayuse tribes were resettled there, and is located immediately southeast of Pendleton.
Cities and towns\n*Adams\n*Athena\n*Cayuse\n*Echo\n*Gopher Flats\n*Helix\n*Hermiston\n*Kirkpatrick\n*Milton-Freewater\n*Mission\n*Pendleton\n*Pilot Rock\n*Riverside\n*Stanfield\n*Tutuilla\n*Ukiah\n*Umatilla\n*Weston