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Ubykh phonology

Below is a SAMPA-compliant rendition of the Ubykh consonant inventory listed in the Ubykh language article:


  bilabial alveolar post-alveolar alveo-palatal retroflex velar uvular glottal
stops voiceless simple p t       k -- kw q -- qw  
pharyng. p?           q? -- q?w  
palatalized           kj qj  
voiced simple b d       g -- gw    
pharyng. b?              
palatalized           gj    
ejective simple p’ t’       k’ -- kw q’ -- qw  
pharyng. p?           q?’ -- q?w  
palatalized           kj qj  
fricatives voiceless simple f s -- sw S C -- Cw S‘ x X -- Xw h
pharyng.             X? -- X?w  
palatalized             Xj  
voiced simple v z -- zw Z j\\ -- j\\w Z‘ G R -- Rw  
pharyng.             R? -- R?w  
palatalized             Rj  
affricates voiceless   ts -- tsw tS tC -- tCw tS‘      
voiced   dz -- dzw dZ dj\\ -- dj\\w dZ‘      
ejective   ts’ -- ts’w tz’ tC’ -- tC’w tS‘’      
sonorants nasal simple m n            
pharyng. m?              
approximant simple w r   y        
pharyng. w?              
lateral voiceless   l_0            
voiced   l            
ejective   l’            


  1. "pharyng." denotes a pharyngealized series of consonants, and pharyngealization itself is denoted with ?.
  2. When a labialized phoneme exists, it is listed after its unlabialized counterpart in the format "[unlab.] -- [lab.]", and is further indicated by w.
  3. Ejectives are indicated with an apostrophe ( ’ ).
  4. Palatalization is indicated by j.
  5. Technically, the affricates / tC / and / dj\\ / are noted as / c / and / J\\ / in SAMPA, but the former have been used to emphasize their relationship to the other affricates.
  6. The velar stops / k /, / g /, and / k' / are only found in Turkish and Circassian loanwords.