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Turpentine is a semifluid resin obtained from trees, mainly pines of the genus Pinus. A volatile oil called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine or, colloquially, turps can be extracted by distillation. Turpentine has been described simply as "distilled trees". Turpentine is used as a solvent, especially for thinning oil-based paints, and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Turpentine was also used in folk medicine for the treatment of intestinal worms or mixed with animal fat as a primitve chest rub for nasal and throat complaints. Some modern chest rubs still contain some turpentine (e.g., Vick's Vaporub).

Turpentine is sometimes called acquaragia; cf aqua regia.