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Tosafists: Medieval rabbis, who collected commentaries on the Talmud appear in virtually every edition since it was first printed. As such, they parallel Rashi in their importance.

The Tosafists are so named for their commentary, "Tosafot," which translates as "additions" or "supplements." This probably means that their authors and editors saw their work as supplements to Rashi's basic commentary. Some have seen the Tosafot as an addition to the Talmud itself. It carries on the Talmud's own methods of dialectical argument and debate. The Tosafot are printed on the outer margin of the page; i.e., when looking at an opened book you will see the Tosafot in the columns closest to the edges of the pages, farthest from the binding. They appear in Rashi script, with the headings of each discussion in large square letters. The Tosafot that have been printed in the standard Talmud editions are merely an accidental selection from a vast literature that circulated in manuscript. Some of the other Tosafot compendia have been published as separate works.