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Thermidor was the eleventh month in the French Revolutionary Calendar, which was used only in France and only for thirteen years. It was the middle month of summer (being named for heat), and started on the equivalent to July 19th or 20th in the Gregorian Calendar.

Thermidor also refers to the coup of 9 Thermidor (27 July, 1794) in which Maximilien Robespierre was guillotined and the Reign of Terror ended. The interval of Thermidor was followed in turn by the French Directory. Prominent figures of Thermidor include Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras and Jean Lambert Tallien.

For historians of revolutionary movements, the term Thermidor has come to mean the phase in a revolution when the political pendulum swings back towards normalcy and power slips from the hands of the revolutionary extremists.

The food "Lobster Thermidor" was named, directly or indirectly, after the month. (Sometimes it is said that it was first prepared for Napoleon during the month of Thermidor; others say that it was created by Tony Girod at the Cafe de Paris to celebrate the opening of a play called Thermidor.)

Lobster Thermidor was one of the last meals served on the Titanic.