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The Thin Red Line (1854 battle)

The Thin Red Line was a famous military action by the 93rd (Highland) Regiment during the Crimean War. The 93rd, led by Sir Colin Campbell, took part in actions at Alma and Sevastopol before routing a Russian cavalry charge on October 24, 1854, at Balaklava.

The Russian force of 25,000 rode down the road to Balaklava. It was countered, in part, by a clash with the British Heavy Cavalry, who charged uphill, led by the apparently fearless Sir James Scarlett. The rest of the Russian force went on to charge the 93rd.

Campbell is said to have told his men, "There is no retreat from here, men. You must die where you stand." Sir Colin's aide John Scott is said to have replied, "Aye, Sir Colin. If needs be, we'll do that." Campbell formed the 93rd into a line two deep --- the "thin red line" --- and had the regiment wait until very close quarters before the first line fired. The Russians continued to advance, and Campbell had his men wait until no more than 500 yards lay between the Highlanders and the charging Russians to fire the second volley. This broke the Russian charge. At that, some of the Highlanders started forward for a cavalry charge, but Sir Colin stopped them with a cry of "93rd, damn all that eagerness!"

It was the London Times correspondent, William H. Russell, who wrote that he could see nothing between the charging Russians and the British base of operations at Balaklava but the "thin red streak tipped with a line of steel" of the 93rd. Popularly condensed into "the thin red line", the phrase became a symbol, rightly or wrongly, for British sang-froid in battle.