At the time of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 949 there was no distinction made between the three separate villages: the whole area was known as Ceadeles funtan, which is Anglo Saxon meaning Caedele's Spring. The villages were however separated by 1237 when in manorial rolls they were referred to as Chalfund Sancti Egidii, Chalfund Sancti Petri and Chalfund Parva respectively. The suffixes St Giles and St Peter are taken from the dedications of the churches of those two villages.
During the Great Plague of 1665, John Milton retired to Chalfont St Giles, which is where he completed his epic poem Paradise Lost. The inspiration for Paradise Regained is said to have been found in this parish from a conversation with one of the local residents.
The town of Gerrards Cross was once a hamlet in the parish of Chalfont St Peter.
Today the villages are popular with the rich and famous, as they are in very close proximity to London yet still retain their country feel. Ozzy Osbourne, Mike Oldfield and Noel Gallagher are three particular names who have owned, or continue to own, properties in the area.