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Name used from classical times until the twentieth century to designate a great tract of Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea to the Pacific Ocean. To the north lies Siberia, to the south (going from the Caspian eastward) lies Persia, Kashmir, Tibet and China. Again, from west to east, it is divided into three parts:

subdivided into
Russian Turkestan
comprising Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia (Turkish speaking) and Tajikistan (Persian speaking)
Chinese Turkestan
comprising Sinkiang or Xinjiang (Turkish speaking) and Dzungaria (Mongol speaking)

Tuva or North Mongolia (Turkish speaking)
Outer Mongolia (Mongol speaking)
Inner Mongolia (Mongol and Chinese speaking)

Outer Manchuria (Russian speaking)
Inner Manchuria (Chinese speaking)

Russian Turkestan was known as 'Independent' Tatary and Chinese Turkestan, Mongolia and Manchuria were together known as Chinese Tatary. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Russia annexed independent Tatary, North Mongolia and Outer Manchuria. China has retained Chinese Turkestan, inner Mongolia and inner Manchuria.

See also: Tartary