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The Streltsy were a group of Russian guardsmen in the 16th and 17th centuries. They were assembled by Ivan the Terrible.

In one of Peter the Great's travels to the west, they revolted and attacked Moscow in an attempt to re-place their patroness Sophia (his sister) on the throne. Peter was notified and he immediately returned, but by the time he arrived his loyal army had already beaten the Streltsy. He had the Streltsy tortured and questioned. He executed all the ones involved in the attack and exiled the rest of the Streltsy to Siberia and other places. The Streltsy were made an example of what rebels would get if they defied Peter the Great's rule.