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Scientific misconduct

Scientific misconduct in science includes such actions as intentionally falsifying research results reported in a journal article, which is considered unethical and in some jurisdictions may be illegal. It also includes violation of ethical standards regarding human and animal experiments, such as the standard that a human subject of the experiment must give informed consent to the experiment.

The word falsifying used above should not be confused with the legitimate and essential activity of finding and sharing evidence that contradicts a hypothesis (see falsifiability) but is used in the sense of presenting known false information as true with the intent to deceive.

see Jan Hendrik Schon