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The sardines or pilchards are several types of small oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae. The terms are not precise, and the usual meanings vary by region; for instance, to many people a "sardine" is a young European pilchard. (FishBase's list of common names shows at least six species called just "pilchard", over a dozen called just "sardine", and many more with the two basic names qualified by various adjectives.)

Canned "sardines" seen in supermarkets may actually be sprats or round herrings.

Genus Dussumeria

Genus Escualosa

Genus Sardina

Genus Sardinella

Genus Sardinops