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Rotenburg is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district (Kreis) of Rotenburg. Population: 21,500.

Rotenburg is situated at the Wmme river. It is often spelled "Rotenburg (Wmme)" in order to distinguish from the Bavarian town of Rothenburg ("Rothenburg (Tauber)", note the additional h).

The town was founded in 1195, when the bishop of Verden built a castle at the place. The castle took its name due to the colour of the bricks (rot="red", Burg="castle"). The adjoining settlement remained a tiny village until the 19th century.