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Roman Republic (19th century)

Another article treats the ancient Roman Republic.

Although the name Roman Republic is usually taken to mean the republic established in Rome that lasted from the 6th century BC until the 1st century BC, it is also the name of a short-lived state established in February, 1849 when the theocratic Papal States were temporarily overthown by Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini and Aurelio Saffi. In the 19th-century Roman Republic, all religions could be practiced freely and the pope was guaranteed the right to govern the Catholic Church. Under the Papal States at that time, Judaism could be practiced freely by those who were born Jewish and not baptized, although Jews were in many respects discriminated against, and all other religions besides Catholicism and Judaism were forbidden except to visiting foreigners.

In June, 1849, Pope Pius IX reestablished the Holy See's temporal power with military aid from France and Austria.