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The Rheinwiesenlager (Rhine meadow camps) were transit camps for millions of German POWss after World War II. There were some deaths, with a few thousand German POWs dying from starvation and exposure.

R.J. Rummel estimates the death toll in the Rheinwiesenlager as between 4,500 and 56,000. Official US figures were just over 3,000 and a German commission found 4,532. The source of the high figure of 56,000 also reported the notation "probably much lower" in Rummel's extracts. Extremely high figures of up to a million are sometimes quoted, but these seem not to be based on any hard evidence, and are generally regarded as latter-day propaganda.

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