Republic of Taiwan
The Republic of Taiwan (臺灣共和國) can refer to two different concepts.
One is short lived republic that existed on Taiwan in 1895, between the removal of Qing forces and the establishment of Japanese control of the island. (See History of Taiwan)
The second refers to a goal of Taiwan independence in creating a Taiwanese state separate from China, covering the areas currently controlled by the Republic of China.
Presidents of the Republic of Taiwan