The planet's natives are the Remans, who were subjugated ever since the Romulans staked claim and set up their new homeworld in the system. Because the planet does not revolve and the species is in constant darkness, the Remans are extremely sensitive to light.
The Remans were treated as second class citizens within the Romulan Star Empire. Remus is the prime planet of dilithium mining and as such many Remans are forced into slave labour. As a result of the Remans' subjugation and harsh treatment, the Romulan Senate and the Preator were killed in an conspiracy led by Shinzon (Star Trek: Nemesis) to gain control of the Empire and use his new starship, the Scimitar, equipped with thalaron weapons and a nearly inpenatrable cloak, to destroy every lifeform on Earth. It is also known that Remans were used by Romulans as shock troops during the Dominion War.
Much about Remus remains a mystery, but hopes of a more co-operative future between The United Federation of Planets and the Romulan Star Empire have been strengthened since Shinzon's fall.