The Pulitzer Prize
is a literary award given out each April. Recipients of the award are chosen by an independent board and officially administered by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism
in the United States
. The prize was established by Joseph Pulitzer
, a Hungarian-American journalist and newspaper publisher in the late 19th century. The very first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded on June 4
The name Pulitzer is often mispronounced. The correct pronunciation, according to administrators of the prize, should sound like "Pull it, sir."
These are the Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2002 competition:
- Public Service - For a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper through the use of its journalistic resources which may include editorials, cartoons, and photographs, as well as reporting.
- Breaking News Reporting - For a distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.
- Investigative Reporting - For a distinguished example of investigative reporting by an individual or team, presented as a single article or series.
- Explanatory Reporting - For a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation.
- Beat Reporting - For a distinguished example of beat reporting characterized by sustained and knowledgeable coverage of a particular subject or activity.
- National Reporting - For a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs.
- International Reporting - For a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence.
- Feature Writing - For a distinguished example of feature writing giving prime consideration to high literary quality and originality.
- Commentary - For distinguished commentary.
- Criticism - For distinguished criticism.
- Editorial Writing - For distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction.
- Editorial Cartooning - For a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.
- Breaking News Photography - For a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.
- Feature Photography - For a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.
There are also five letters (books) categories:
- Fiction - For distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
- History - For a distinguished book upon the history of the United States.
- Biography or Autobiography - For a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.
- Poetry - For a distinguished volume of original verse by an American author.
- General Non-Fiction - For a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.
There are two other humanites categories that have been added:
Two additonal awards are given for drama and music for a total of 21 award categories.
The complete list of Pulitzer Prizes given (inlcuding discontinued awards) is as follows:
Over the years a number of Pulitzer prizes have been discontinued these are:
- Local Reporting
- Explanatory Journalism
- General News Reporting
- Local General Spot News Reporting
- Local Investigative Specialized Reporting
- Local Reporting, Edition Time
- Local Reporting, No Edition Time
- Specialized Reporting
- Spot News Photography
- Spot News Reporting
- Telegraphic Reporting - International
- Telegraphic Reporting - National
- the Novel (became Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
There have also been a number of Special Citations and Awards:
Pulitzer Prizes by year
2003 - 2002 - 2001 - 2000 - 1999 - 1998 - 1997 - 1996 - 1995 - 1994 - 1993 - 1992 - 1991 - 1990 - 1989 - 1988 - 1987 - 1986 - 1985 - 1984 - 1983 - 1982 - 1981 - 1980 - 1979 - 1978 - 1977 - 1976 - 1975 - 1974 - 1973 - 1972 - 1971 - 1970 - 1969 - 1968 - 1967 - 1966 - 1965 - 1964 - 1963 - 1962 - 1961 - 1960 - 1959 - 1958 - 1957 - 1956 - 1955 - 1954 - 1953 - 1952 - 1951 - 1950 - 1949 - 1948 - 1947 - 1946 - 1945 - 1944 - 1943 - 1942 - 1941 - 1940 - 1939 - 1938 - 1937 - 1936 - 1935 - 1934 - 1933 - 1932 - 1931 - 1930 - 1929 - 1928 - 1927 - 1926 - 1925 - 1924 - 1923 - 1922 - 1921 - 1920 - 1919 - 1918 - 1917
- The official Pulitzer prize website: