People are a group of Native Americans
who live in New Mexico
and in Arizona
. When first encountered by the Spanish
in the 1500s
they were living in adobe
and stonework towns, mainly in the Rio Grande
valley and thus were called "Pueblos," pueblo
being the Spanish
word for town. About 25 pueblos exist today, Taos
, Acoma, Zuni
the most well known.
The Pueblo Indians consist of six distinct groups, each with its own language:
- Hopi language group
- Keres language group
- Tanoa language group
- Towa (only Jemez Pueblo)
- Zuni language group
They are believed to be descended from the three major cultures that dominated the region before European contact:
Historically, they were the only group of Native Americans that supported themselves entirely by agriculture, which is ironic given that they live in one of the most arid regions in North America. Though European settlement began in the early sixteenth century, the desert conditions precluded masssive intrusions into Indian land until the mid-ninettenth century. As a result and despite forced conversions to Catholicism by the Spanish, the Pueblo tribes have been able to maintain much of their traditional lifestyle. There are now some 35,000 Pueblo Indians, living mostly in New Mexico and Arizona along the Rio Grande
and Colorado River
List of Pueblos
- Acoma Pueblo NM 87034 - Keres speakers. Oldest continuously inhabited village in US.
- Cicuye Pueblo - now Pecos Pueblo, survivors allied with Jemez Pueblo 1830s.
- Cochiti Pueblo NM 87072 - Keres speakers. Church 1628. Feast Day: July 14
- Isleta Pueblo NM 87022 - Tiwa speakers. Established 1300s. Feast Days: call.
- Jemez Pueblo NM 87024 - Towa speakers. Photography and sketching prohibited at pueblo, but welcomed at Red Rocks.
- Laguna Pueblo NM 87026 - Keres speakers. Ancestors 3000 BC, established before 1300. Church July 4, 1699. Photography and sketching prohibited on the land, but welcomed at San Jose Mission Church.
- Nambe Pueblo - Tewa speakers. Established 1300s. Ceremonials July 4, October 4
- Picuris Pueblo, Penaso NM 87553 - Tiwa speakers. Feast Day August 10
- Pojoaque Pueblo, Santa Fe NM 87506 - Tewa speakers. Re-established 1930s. Feast Day December 12, January 6
- Sandia Pueblo, Bernalillo NM 87004 - Tiwa speakers. Originally named Nafiat. Established 1300s. On the northern outskirts of Albuquerque.
- San Felipe Pueblo NM 87001 - Keres speakers. 1706. Photography and sketching prohibited at pueblo. Feast Day May 1
- San Ildefonso Pueblo, Santa Fe NM 87506 - Tewa speakers. Originally at Mesa Verde and Bandelier. The rare Black-on-Black pottery was developed here by Maria and Julian Martinez. Photography and sketching prohibited at pueblo. Heavily-visited destination. Feast Day January 23
- San Juan Pueblo NM 87566 - Tewa speakers. Originally named O'ke in Tewa. Headquarters of the Eight Pueblos Council. Home of the August 1680 Pueblo revolt.
- Santa Ana Pueblo NM 87004 - Keres speakers. Photography and sketching prohibited at pueblo. Feast Day July 26
- Santa Clara Pueblo, Espagnola NM 87532 - Tewa speakers. 1550. Originally inhabited Puye' Cliff Dwellings on Santa Clara Canyon.
- Santo Domingo Pueblo NM 87052 - Keres speakers. Turquoise workers. Feast Day August 4; Corn Dance.
- Taos Pueblo NM 87571 - Tiwa speakers. World Heritage Site. National Historic Site Feast Day September 30. Photography and sketching $20. Commercial work requires advance approval.
- Tesuque Pueblo - Tewa speakers. Originally named Te Tesugeh Oweengeh 1200. National Register of Historic Places. Pueblo closed to public. Camel Rock is open.
- Zia Pueblo NM 87053-6013 - Keres speakers. New Mexico's State Flag uses the Zia symbol. Feast Day August 15
- Zuni Pueblo NM 87327 - Zuni speakers. First visited 1540 by Spanish. Mission 1629
these peoples were granted US
citizenship. In 1948
, they were granted the right to vote in New Mexico.
See also: Native American languages
- Pueblo People, Ancient Traditions Modern Lives, Marica Keegan, Clear Light Publishers, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1998, profusely illustrated hardback, ISBN 1-57416-000-1