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St. Philomena's remains were discovered on May 24, 1802 in St. Priscilla catacomb in Rome. She was a young girl, 12 or 13, at the time of her death: the inscriptions found on terra cotta slabs which formed the sides of her vault (an anchor, two arrows, a lance, a palm and a lily) indicate that she suffered a Christian martyr's death, that she overcame, and that she was a virgin. Inside the tomb were discovered her relics including a vase containing her dried blood. Her holios or sainthood is ascribed to the miracles performed by her wherever her relics or image or statue is displayed (Thaumaturga). Her relationship with the Curé of Ars, through whom she is said to have performed miracles, is historically well-documented.

On February 14, 1961, prior to the Second Vatican Council, the Sacred Congregation of Rites in Rome issued an instruction that St. Philomena's feast day, August 11, was to be removed from the calendar. This, however, did not in any way mean that the Church no longer considered her a Roman Catholic Saint.

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