- December 5
; also spelled Phylis Wheatley
) was born in Senegal
in Africa, but was captured and sold into slavery
at a young age. Around 1760 she was purchased by the Wheately family of Boston, and was in fact practically adopted by the family which owned her. She was given a fairly extensive home education, including Latin, Greek, and Biblical studies. She became a very accomplished poet, with her first poem published when she was only 13.
In 1770 she wrote a poetic tribute on the death of the calvinist George Whitefield that received widespread acclaim in Boston. In 1772 she was examined by a group of Boston luminaries including John Erving, Rev. Charles Chauncey, John Hancock, Thomas Hutchinson, the governor of Massachusetts, and his Leiutenant Governor Andrew Oliver. They concluded that she had in fact written the poems ascribed to her and signed an attestation which was published in the preface to her book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral published in Aldgate, London in 1773. It was published in London because publishers in Boston had refused to publish the text. Phillis with her master's son, Nathanial Wheatley went to London, where Selina, Countess of Huntingdon and the Earl of Dartmouth helped with the publication.
Her work was lauded by some of the leading figures of the American Revolution, including George Washington, who met with her to thank her for a poem she had written in his honor.
After the death of John and Susannah Wheately, Phillis married a free black grocer named John Peters. She herself did domestic work as a servant. Neither hard work nor artistic ability were to bring her prosperity, and she died in poverty in 1784.
See also: Slave narrative
- An Elegy, Sacred to the Memory of the Great Divine, the Reverend and Learned Dr. Samuel Cooper, Who Departed This Life December 29, 1783
- Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and Slave (Boston: Published by Geo. W. Light, 1834), also by Margaretta Matilda Odell
- Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral Published in 1773 in England
- To His Excellency George Washington written for Washington in 1776