The application of a permutation group to the elements being permuted is called its group action; it has applications in both the study of symmetries, combinatorics and many other branches of mathematics.
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2 Isomorphisms 3 See Also |
Consider the following set of permutations G of the set M = {1,2,3,4}:
The group of all permutations of a set of n elements is the symmetric group written S_{n}; if M is any finite or infinite set, then the group of all permutations of M is often written as Sym(M).
The Rubik's Cube puzzle is another example of a permutation group. The underlying set being permuted is the colored subcubes of the whole cube. Each of the rotations of the faces of the cube is a permutation of the positions and orientations of the subcubes. Taken together, the rotations form a generating set, which in turn generates a group by composition of these rotations. The axioms of a group are easily seen to be satisfied; to invert any sequence of rotations, simply perform their opposites, in reverse order.
The group of permutations on the Rubik's Cube does not form a complete symmetric group of the 20 corner and face cubelets; there are some final cube positions which cannot be achieved through the legal manipulations of the cube.
More generally, every group G is isomorphic to a permutation group by virtue of its action on G as a set; this is the content of Cayley's Theorem.
If G and H are two permutation groups on the same set S, then we say that G and H are isomorphic as permutation groups if there exists a bijective map f : S → S such that r |-> f^{ -1} o r o f defines a bijective map between G and H; in other words, if for each element g in G, there is a unique h_{g} in H such that for all s in S, (g o f)(s) = (f o h_{g})(s). In this case, G and H are also isomorphic as groups.
Notice that different permutation groups may well be isomorphic as abstract groups, but not as permutation groups. For instance, the permutation group on {1,2,3,4} described above is isomorphic as a group (but not as a permutation group) to {(1)(2)(3)(4), (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)}. Both are isomorphic as groups to the Klein group V_{4}.
If (G,M) and (H,M) such that both G and H are isomorphic as groups to Sym(M), then (G,M) and (H,M) are isomorphic as permutation groups; thus it is appropriate to talk about the symmetric group Sym(M) (up to isomorphism).