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Party designation in early United States Congresses

When the United States Congress was established, factionism and organized political parties were explicitly repudiated by James Madison, among others. Party designations of pro-Administration and anti-Administration, eventually organized into the Federalists and Republicans, respectively.

The divisions in sentiment grew out of the debates which accompanied the drafting and ratification of the United States Constitution. The most concrete divisions centered on the adoption of a bill of rights and disagreement over the dominant influence of Alexander Hamilton's nationalist policies.

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