Party designation in early United States Congresses
When the United States Congress
was established, factionism and organized political parties
were explicitly repudiated by James Madison
, among others. Party designations
, eventually organized into the Federalists
The divisions in sentiment grew out of the debates which accompanied the drafting and ratification of the United States Constitution. The most concrete divisions centered on the adoption of a bill of rights and disagreement over the dominant influence of Alexander Hamilton's nationalist policies.