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Palembang is a city on the southern side of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. It is the capital of the Sumatera Selatan province.

The city used be the capital of the ancient, partly Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, however in 1025 it was raided by pirates from the Chola region of southern India and declined in importance. Srivajaya's capital moved northward to Jambi-Melayu.

In colonial times, the Dutch gained control of Palembang. Their architectural legacy is still visible.