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Over-consumption is a concept coined in developing nations to counter the rhetoric of over-population by which developed nations judge them as consuming more than their economy can support. A key argument, often made by Green parties and the ecology movement, is that consumption per person, or ecological footprint, is lower in poor than in rich nations. Another key argument, often made in the anti-globalization movement, is that economics itself, particularly that of the commodity markets, is a 'rigged game' by which developed nations loot developing nations of their wealth, including especially their human capital - a process called human capital flight.

See also: green economics