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Oscan, the language of the Osci, is one of the ancient progenitors of Italian language, supposedly closely related to Umbrian, Latin and Faliscan. It should also identify, but this has not been adequately cleared, the language and the culture of the Osci, one of the most ancient peoples of central Italy.

It is believed it was spoken in Samnium and in Campania, as well as in Lucania and in Abruzzo, ancient territory of the Brutii.

Something of it is known by inscriptions starting from 400 BC.